Operators and superintendents must recognize many of the common standard practices used at water and wastewater systems today can lead to a potential catastrophic issue at their facilities. This course looks at some of these issues, where if not addressed, can ultimately lead to events that potentially cause bodily harm or even kill operators and customers if not effectively addressed. First, we will look at the results of lack of verification of even the very basic chemicals delivered to our facilities, document case histories where events have occurred, and show system personnel how simple and easy a verification program is to establish. Next, address operational issues such as the laboratory result where the pink-red color that develops in the DPD Chlorine test, but is not chlorine; and what operations personnel can to do to mitigate these issues. Additionally, learn why the Infrastructure Age requires extra vigilance to prevent system contamination. Even with backflow prevention, the fact remains that a garden hose is still the number one potential contamination source for water systems. Discuss why water stagnation and biofilm formation can lead to bacterial contamination and how operations can minimize these issues with simple low-cost steps.